In Defense Of Ditching Bike Helmets: Why Making Them Mandatory Is Bad For Cycling

bike helmet laws

A few weeks ago, I read Elizabeth Rosenthal‘s article in the New York Times, ” To Encourage Biking, Cities Lose The Helmets.” I’ve always been a big proponent of wearing helmets while cycling, but Rosenthal’s article, which basically posited that helmet laws discourage people from riding bikes, completely changed my perception of biking and helmets. Intrigued, I set off to find out if bike helmets are really as necessary we think they are.

I’ve always wondered why I frequently see celebrities (like Lauren Conrad) and popular bloggers (like Joanna Goddard) riding without helmets.  Was it because helmets are almost universally ugly?  Was it just a one-time oversight? Regardless, it struck me as both dangerous and irresponsible. I mean, you only get one brain, so why take any chances with it, right? I’m not the only person who thinks that way—but among some cycling enthusiasts, the idea that helmets are necessary is about as popular as Lance Armstrong‘s doping charges. Over the past few weeks, I delved into the very controversial, very passionate, very heated world of the cycling helmet debates.

The idea of wearing bicycle helmets gained popularity in the 1970s and 80s, although their use never seemed to really catch on in Europe, where biking has been a popular form of casual transportation for a long time. In the United States, a more car-driven culture, the widespread use of helmets was considered an appropriate safety precaution for all riders, no matter their age, skill level, or riding purposes. Currently, there is at least some kind of bicycle helmet law in place in 19 states, including the District of Columbia.

I spoke to the editor of Momentum magazine, Mia Kohout, about her publication’s stance on helmets, which is that people over 16 should not be required by law to wear them. Momentum, whose tag line is “smart living by bike,” frequently features photographs of people without helmets, something Mia says is very controversial among their readers. Mia herself, who only recently started cycling helmetless, sees helmet laws as both prohibitive and overly protective.

“The more I read about it and learn about it, the clearer it becomes from my point of view that the research is not conclusive that helmets are the be-all and end-all as a life-saving protective gear. I look to European cities where no one wears helmets; this idea of civilized cycling. You ride upright, you ride slow, you ride on safe, protected routes. Cycling is not dangerous. If I’m not going to wear a helmet when I’m crossing the street or climbing a ladder, why would I wear one when I’m riding a bike?”

The idea that helmet laws discourage people from riding bikes is not new; in fact, it’s been tossed around for years by cycling proponents. Piet de Jong, a professor at Macquarie University in Sydney, quoted in the New York Times article, says that,“Pushing helmets really kills cycling and bike-sharing in particular because it promotes a sense of danger that just isn’t justified — in fact, cycling has many health benefits.” Dr. de Jong also helmed a study that found that helmet laws have serious, though unintended, health consequences.

In Brisbane, Australia, officials found that the mandatory helmet law was very likely responsible for causing people not to take advantage of the city’s bike share program: the 2000 bikes in the program are used, on average, only once every four days. But in cities without helmet laws, like Dublin and London, the bike-sharing programs report increased use.

Kohout thinks that helmet laws ultimately prevent people from riding bikes: “For the overall health of society, people are going to live longer and have overall healthier lives if they ride a bike. The overall effects on society are so much more positive if you don’t enforce helmet-wearing as a law.”

Of course, if you’re already an avid cyclist, a helmet law isn’t going to keep you off of your bike.  But one of the more important aspects to consider when thinking about required helmet use is the type of rider and the type of riding; almost everyone I spoke to agreed that long-distance and racing cyclists should certainly wear protective headgear. But it’s the casual, commuter cyclists that might benefit from increased physical activity on bikes, and it’s also these people who are less likely to invest in a helmet for every day wear. Brian Massie, a casual rider, told me, “I don’t ride faster than about 30 mph and I haven’t had a bicycle incident in 20 years. Even then it wasn’t much more than a skinned knee. You might consider me irresponsible, but I’ve never worn a bicycle helmet.”

I heard again and again about the importance of personal choice in regards to helmets. Mikael Colville Anderson, the creator of Copenhagen Cycle Chic, is known for his staunch anti-helmet stance; you can see his incendiary TEDx talk here. Lawyer Josh King, the general counsel for, emphasizes the fact that riding a bike is not a risky enough behavior to require helmets:

Cycling is not an inherently dangerous activity – for children or adults – and the government shouldn’t treat it as such by mandating helmets.  People can make their own choices about whether wearing a helmet is appropriate.

Burton Avery, the brand manager for Civia Cycles, also encourages the idea of personal choice:

“The Civia philosophy is that wearing a helmet should be an informed choice based on where, when and how someone rides.  At Civia we encourage everyone to wear a helmet when they can, but recognize that a helmet is not a necessity for all neighborhood riders and riding.  By neighborhood riding we mean shorter distances, lower  speeds on less traveled roads or paths and when you’re riding in your regular clothes.”

But those who are proponents of helmet laws also cite personal reasons as to why it’s important to wear a helmet. Helmet wearers are disdainful of cyclists who don’t wear helmets because helmets are uncomfortable, because they destroy hairstyles, or because these cyclists want “to feel the wind in their face.” Many people have stories about themselves, their loved ones or their friends who directly benefited from wearing a helmet when in an accident. Mark Waite, the founder of Cycling CEO, told me, “Had I not been wearing a helmet in 2006 when out for a bike ride, I likely wouldn’t be sitting here. I was hit by a car, flew over the front of the car, landed on my right shoulder and smacked my head on the pavement.”

I also spoke with an internist at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore, Dr. David Scharff. He’s president of Lateral Stress Velo, a bicycle club and racing team from Baltimore, and a participant/organizer of the annual BIKEJAM racing event. As a dedicated cyclist, Dr. Scharff says:

“There is no down side to wearing a helmet.  They are inexpensive, comfortable, and work. I know of many people who have been pinned into a curb by a car, had a wheel go into a rain grate, and slid on a wet road: those with helmets never had head injuries.  And I know folks who had concussions and serious head injuries from the same minor incidents (didn’t wear it because just pedaling to the store or just pedaling around corner to school). If you have ever seen a crushed helmet after an accident, and a well person without a head injury, you would never go anywhere without one.”

There are extensive statistics to support both sides. A 1987 study found that the wearing of helmets reduces the risk of head injury by 85% and of brain injury by 87%, and a 2001 study found that bicycle helmets do prevent serious injury and even death. But a 2011 analysis found that the results of the 2001 study were exaggerated. People also cite research that suggests that people on bicycles might engage in riskier riding behaviors if they’re wearing a helmet, feeling that the helmet provides a sense of false security.

Whichever side of the debate you’re on, I think the key here is to make an informed decision about yourself as a cyclist. I don’t think I’m going to stop wearing a helmet anytime soon, but I’ve stopped judging those who don’t wear them. The idea of personal choice resonates with me, as does the idea that we, as a society, could encourage more cycling if we didn’t place such a high value on helmets. Cycling is beneficial for both the health of humans and of the environment we live in; it’s up to us to decide how we can best reap those healthy benefits, with a helmeted head or not.

Photo by Anthony Niblet, courtesy of Momentum magazine

Share This Post:
    • Lastango

      I’m against the helmet laws, because I don’t like telling other people how to live or what to do – but you won’t see me on my bike without one. I live in a city, with congestion and hazards everywhere. Plus, I’m a lot faster than I used to be.
      I know two people who were killed on bikes in the city; one was hit by a car, the other by a truck. A surgeon I know missed months of work after a crackup while mountainbiking. The point is, they were all adults and can make their own choices. The person hit by the truck was wearing a helmet — and was riding at night on a busy, multi-lane street, with no lights on the bike and while wearing dark clothing. The truck driver said he never saw him.
      But when I was a child and living in small towns, I never had more than a skinned knee, and I never heard of anyone else who did either. And no one wore a helmet.

    • Laura

      There’s safety in numbers with cycling. Cambridge, UK is great for cyclists because all the roads are full of them! Car drivers know to look out for us. Other British cities are nowhere near as good, because there isn’t a critical mass of cyclists. Brighton is more about the pedestrians and Nottingham is all about the car for example.
      In Cambridge I’d say it’s about 20% of people regularly wear a helmet. All accidents I’ve personally witnessed (or been in) involved scraped knees and hands. Cycling deaths I’ve heard about have been cyclists not being seen by large vehicle drivers who were turning left into the path of the cyclist. I think the most recent death I remember the guy was wearing a helmet and it did not help, the guy was crushed!
      Another thing to note, if a helmet protected you from head injury, the polystyrene inside would be crushed. Now I’ve not seen that happen, I’ve heard of helmets cracking, but that is not the mode in which they are designed to protect the head.

      • Steve VanderWoerd

        I agree with Laura,… increase the number of commuter cyclists and you increase the number of drivers that know how to drive around cyclists. Increase the number of commuters,… and the cities will probably be able to justify implementing more separation between cars and bikes driving the risk down further. Helmets racing, or mountain biking, for sure,.. but noone doing those sports would not wear one anyways.

    • BoGoWo

      i was [un]‘impressed’ by the comment “If you have ever seen a crushed helmet after an accident, and a well person without a head injury” should have been followed by – you would realize that the helmet obviously didn’t stay on, or the head would have been crushed too; but instead once the helmet was gone – helmetless at that point – the cyclist escaped injury!

    • basily

      I would be curious to know how many people who insist on helmet use also insist on using a mirror. In my experience, using a mirror is much more important to safety than a helmet. Using a mirror actively engages you in your own (and other’s) safety, while a helmet is a passive safety device only. Hence the idea that “people on bicycles might engage in riskier riding behaviors if they’re wearing a helmet, feeling that the helmet provides a sense of false security.”

    • Sarah Heyman

      You don’t bike because you have to wear a helmet???? That is a really lame excuse. I get not biking because you are afraid of traffic, bad weather, or darkness, but because you have to wear a helmet, is about the most ridiculous and ill-logical reason ever. BTW- I have YET to meet anyone who is convinced that it is “Safe to ride” because you see people riding w/out helmets. They are much more convinced when you show them low/slow traffic alternative routes. The not riding cause you have to wear a helmet thing is a specious argument. Where are your stats for the US, not anecdotal stories. Also I might add that you never see reports about the people who DID NOT need go to the ER for stitches etc because they were wearing helmets.

    • carolaquelin

      Ok I binge eat for a few days. Then I start feeling bad about myself so I starve myself eating 500 calories for a few days.

    • nina

      When I was 10 I rode my bike with out a helmet. I fell off and got a concussion. I had to be rushed to the hospital and be under observation. She was paying off that bill until I was an adult. So yes I will and my daughter will be wearing a helmet when we ride bikes for both health and financial reasons.